The Koiné Manifesto

In favour of Catalan as the only official language in Catalonia

The Manifesto of the Koiné Group, signed on March 31st 2016, proposes Catalan as the only official language of the independent Republic of Catalonia and has opened a new debate in both Catalan and Spanish society about the role of Castilian Spanish and Catalan here in Catalonia.

The manifesto claims that Castilian is an alien language that has been imposed by the state and that bilingualism is an abnormal situation.

You can read the Full Manifesto in Catalan Here.



The undersigned, all language students, philologists, linguists, teachers, writers, translators, jurists and professionals in similar areas, believe that, considering the real situation of the Catalan language and bearing in mind the constituent process that will soon begin in Catalonia as a result of the democratic mandate expressed last September 27th,  they have an obligation to express what follows to the public.


1. That the Catalan language is the language of Catalonia, in the sense it is the indigenous language of the territory of Catalonia, where historically it has been formed and has evolved, and from where it extended to the Valencian Country and the Balearic Islands. It is the language that has always been spoken by the Catalan people.

2. That the Catalan language is not, however, in the normal situation of a territorial language in its own territory because, as a result of the annexation of the Principality of Catalonia by the Kingdom of Castile, Castilian, as the language of domination, coercively disputes this status of territorial language and has tried and continues trying to repressively displace Catalan from the areas of general linguistic use. This also happened in the Valencian Country from 1707, in Mallorca and Ibiza from 1715 and in Menorca from 1802. In the same way, French was imposed in the northern counties (now known as North Catalonia), following the annexation of this part of the Principality by the Kingdom of France in 1659.

3. We also affirm, as is often typical in processes of political and linguistic domination, the mechanism to achieve the implantation of Castilian in Catalonia has been and continues being the forced bilingualisation of the population. A process that took centuries and until 1939 was very precarious regarding the majority of the popular classes. However, the dictatorial regime of General Franco completed this process of forced bilingualisation through the political and legal repression of the use of Catalan, obligatory schooling and the extension of new media, all totally in Castilian, as well as the use of the arrival of immigration from Castilian-speaking territories as an involuntary instrument of linguistic colonisation.

4. We affirm that the constitutional regime of 1978 has reinforced the continuation of the political and legal imposition of Castilian in Catalonia. The legislation of the re-established Generalitat and the consequent linguistic policies have served to overcome this in certain areas and precariously halt the total minoritisation of Catalan at the hands of Francoism, but have not served to reverse the social norm of the use of Catalan being subordinated to Castilian, which conditions the daily use of the immense majority of speakers and takes us to an unfailing substitution of the language of the country for the language of the state.

5. We affirm that this process of substitution has been accelerating, so that the current situation of the Catalan language in the majority of areas of general use is extremely critical, to the point that at the present time, in Catalonia, it isn't the language chosen by any inhabitant to use to address someone they don't know. Neither is it the dominant language amongst the generations of the so-called "immersion". In the most populated areas, they know it but use it minimally. And, in parallel, the social marginalisation, the qualitative and structural degradation of the language has not stopped increasing and is on the way to making it a kind of dialect of Castilian.


1. The profound abnormality that means that in Catalonia (and in all the countries where Catalan is spoken), the normal linguistic reality in a country with immigration appears to be in some way reversed. The language of immigration (but only Spanish) takes, to all effects, the role of default language, of language of the country, of national language, and on the contrary, the language of the country is becoming private to a closed community that is reducing and will end up disappearing as often happens with languages of immigration. This abnormality is distorted by the majority of surveys that are done.

2. We denounce the political ideology of the so-called "bilingualism" that, from the spheres of power, has innoculated all the Catalan population since 1978 to justify the legal regime established by the Constitution and the Statute of Autonomy making them believe that the coexistence of two languages in Catalonia, both of them supposedly with the same status of officiality and equality of rights, is something natural, positive, enriching and democratic. In reality, the bilinguistic ideology is nothing more than a way of hiding and legitimising the subordination of one language to another and the consequent process of linguistic substitution that Catalan society suffers. The slowness of this process encourages the mirage that social bilingualism can allow the success of a minoritised language and a balanced situation betwen the indigenous and alien languages.

3. We denounce the arguments of some political groups that, under the cover of bilinguistic ideology, propose that, in the future Catalan Republic, the linguistic abnormality continues being guaranteed and becomes the false normality of the republic.


1. The urgency of becoming aware of the social problem that the linguistic breakdown created by Spanish domination constitutes for Catalan society, an awareness that is now missing for the majority of citizens and many political leaders. It is necessary that everyone understands that one of the main problems of state of the new republic, perhaps the most important one, will be the linguistic problem because it affects the very basis of social cohesion.

2. We state the necessity that this linguistic awareness informs the public debate of the constituent process and the constitutional consensus, if we don't want the new constitution to be a way of trapping us in a false linguistic problem, which impedes or even makes it impossible to solve by the only possible ways: a) the restoration of Catalan to the status of territorial language of Catalonia (and the same for Occitanian in the Vall d'Aran) b) the reversal of the practice of systematic and generalised subordination of the use of Catalan (or of Occitanian) to the use of Castilian and c) the progressive recovery of the genuine language.

3. Finally we state the necessity, as a result of becoming linguistically aware, of the creation of a broad citizen's movement for linguistic normalisation that counts on the maximum number of commitments to behaviour designed to overcome linguistic subordination; a movement that has to include everybody, whatever their origin and whatever their initial language might be.

4. We definitively state that we incorporate into the constituent process the will to make the Catalan language the integrating axis for all our citizens within a framework of the public acceptance of multilingualism as an individual and social asset, with all the necessary measures to guarantee that everybody feels recognised and included in the building of a normal country, which is also normal regarding its language.

Universitat de Barcelona, 31 de març de 2016

Signen els Premis d’Honor de les lletres catalanes següents:

-Jaume Cabré Fabré
-Josep Massot i Muntaner
-Joan Francesc Mira Casterà
-Maria Antònia Oliver i Cabrer
-Joan Veny i Clar

Signen també els membres de l’Institut d’Estudis Catalans següents (en algun cas, que esmentarem, ho són d’altres acadèmies):

-Cosme Aguiló Adrover
-Joaquim Agulló i Batlle
-Oriol Camps Giralt
-Salvador Cardús i Ros
-Nicolau Dols Salas
-Joan Ferrer Costa, membre de la Reial Acadèmia de Bones Lletres
-Josep Gifreu Pinsach
-Albert Jané i Riera
-Xavier Llimona i Pagès, membre de l’Institut i també de la Reial Acadèmia de Ciències i Arts de Barcelona
-Mercè Lorente i Casafont
-Joaquim Mallafré i Gavaldà
-Joan Martí i Castell
-Josep Martines Pérez
-Joan Miralles Montserrat
-Josep Moran i Ocerinjauregui
-Josep Maria Nadal i Farreras
-Joan Peytaví Deixona
-Vicent Pitarch i Almela
-Enric Pujol i Casademont
-Joaquim Rafel i Fontanals
-Enric Ribes i Marí
-Gemma Rigau i Oliver
-Joandomènec Ros i Aragonès, president de l’Institut
-Joaquim Rosselló i Molinari
-Mila Segarra i Neira
-Eva Serra i Puig   
-Ramon Sistac Vicén
-Ricard Torrents i Bertrana
-Mariàngela Vilallonga Vives

Signen també els catedràtics i professors següents, de les universitats dels Països Catalans on hi ha facultats de llengua catalana i d’algunes de fora del nostre domini lingüístic:

-Ignasi de Loiola Badia Capdevila
-Montserrat Badia i Cardús
-Mònica Barrieras Angas
-Vicent Beltran Calvo
-Elisenda Bernal Gallén
-Jordi Berrio Serrano
-Josep Besa Camprubi
-Gabriel Bibiloni i Canyelles
-Sebastià Bonet Espriu
-Laura Borràs i Castanyer
-August Bover Font
-Teresa Cabré Monné
-Rosa Calafat Vila
-Enric Cassany Cels
-Carles Castellanos Llorens
-Josep Antoni Castellanos Vila
-Teresa Colomer Martínez
-Maria Conca Martínez
-Jaume Corbera Pou
-Eusebi Coromina Pou
-Immaculada Creus Bellet
-Elga Cremades i Cortiella
-Lluís De Yzaguirre i Maura
-Susan Digiacomo
-Francesc Esteve Gómez
-Neus Faura Pujol
-Montserrat Forcadell Guinjoan
-Narcís Garolera Carbonell
-Carme Gregori Soldevila
-Oriol Guasch Boyé
-Josep Guia i Marín
-Jaume Guiscafrè Danús
-Manuel Jorba Jorba
-Joan Julià-Muné
-Carme Junyent Figueras
-Jaume Martí i Llobet
-Àngels Massip Bonet
-Jesús Francesc Massip Bonet
-Jaume Medina Casanovas
-Joan Melià Garí
-Anna Maria Montserrat Ciurana
-Juan Carlos Moreno Cabrera
-Josep Murgades Barceló
-Montserrat Palau Vergés
-David Paloma Sanllehí
-Lídia Pons Griera
-Joan Ramon Resina
-Carles-Enric Riba Campos
-Albert Rico Busquets
-Pere Rosselló Bover
-Andreu Sentí Pons
-Till Stegmann
-Oriol Teixell Puig
-Anna Maria Torrent Badia
-Jesús Tusón Valls
-Esteve Valls Alecha.

Signen també el manifest els escriptors següents:

-Víctor Alexandre
-Jordi Alzina i Bilbeny
-Mercè Arànega Espanyol
-Carme Arenas Noguera, presidenta del PEN Català
-Josep-Ramon Bach
-Maria Barbal
-Sebastià Bennassar Llober
-Lluís Busquets i Gabulosa
-Núria Cadenes Alabèrnia
-Lluís Calderer Cortasa
-Roser Caminals-Heath
-Jordi Coca Vilallonga
-Josep Coll i Martí
-Narcís Comadira Moragriega
-Teresa Costa-Gramunt
-Antoni Dalmases Pardo
-Antoni Dalmau i Ribalta
-Josep-Francesc Delgado Mercader
-Miquel Desclot
-Ignasi Farinyes
-Albert Figueras i Suñé
-Marc Granell i Rodríguez
-Pere Grau i Rovira
-Oriol Izquierdo Llopis
-Julià de Jòdar Muñoz
-Enric Larreula i Vidal
-Joan-Lluís Lluís
-Montserrat Manent i Rodon
-Manuel Molins i Casaña
-Bel Olid, la qual signa a títol personal i també com a presidenta de l’Associació d’Escriptors en Llengua Catalana, per acord de la seva Junta
-Víctor Pallàs i Arissa
-Gemma Pasqual i Escrivà
-Núria Ribalta i Sanz
-Jaume Rodri-Febrer
-Màriam Serrà i Fernàndez
-Lluís Solà Sala
-David Vila i Ros
-Pau Vidal i Gavilán
-Vicenç Villatoro Lamolla

Finalment, signen el manifest els filòlegs, lingüistes, catedràtics i professors de secundària, mestres i pedagogs, traductors, juristes en dret lingüístic, tècnics de planificació lingüística, sociolingüistes, assessors lingüístics, correctors, ex-directors generals de Política Lingüística i ex-consellera d’Ensenyament següents:

-Anna Aguiló
-Òscar Alegret i Teijeiro
-Miquel Aranudies i Martí
-Joaquim Arenas i Sampera
-Paulí Arenas i Sampera
-Miquel Bach Núñez
-Joan Badia i Pujol
-Jordi Badia i Pujol
-Joan-Pere Le Bihan Rullan
-Francesc Bitlloch i Carbó
-Miquel Bofill i Abelló
-Ester Bonet Solé
-Jordi Buil Maurici
-Jem Cabanes i Orriols
-Tessa Calders i Artís
-Tomàs Camacho Molina
-Montserrat Canal Espuñes
-Josep Lluís Carod-Rovira
-Josefina Carrera-Sabaté
-Eduardo Carrillo i Valdívia
-Silvana Casal Casellas
-Teresa Casal i Rubio
-Rafel Castellanos i Llorenç
-Diana Coromines i Calders
-Marc Cortés Minguet
-Anna Cortils Munné
-Delfina Corzan Melgosa
-Gemma Dalmau i Cabezuelo
-Carles Domingo i Francàs
-Jordi Dorca Dorca
-Alba Espot i Faixa
-Mercè Espuny i Pujol
-Alfons Esteve i Gómez
-Laura Farré Badia
-Josep Ferrer i Ferrer
-Joan Fibla Sancho
-Ricard Fité Labaila
-Àngels Folch i Borràs
-Miquel García Casaponsa
-Bernat Gasull i Roig
-Núria Gavaldà Mestre
-Carme-Laura Gil i Miró
-Teresa Giner i Orengo
-Nicolau Gonzàlez i Blanco
-Daniela Grau Humbert
-Josep Maria Gutiérrez i Torné
-Josepa Huguet i Biosca
-Joan Iglèsias i Carrión
-Lourdes Janer i Ortega
-Bernat Joan i Marí
-Francesc Jutglar i Jutglar
-Teresa Maria Lluch Juncosa
-Josep Maria López Llaví
-Pere Mayans Balcells
-Jaume Marfany Segalés
-Jordi Martí Monllau
-Josep Maria Mestres i Serra
-Jordi Minguell Roselló
-Jordi Mir i Parache
-Xavier Moral Ajado
-Francesc Mortés i Toriella
-Károly Morvay
-Carme Munt Duran
-Margarida Muset i Adel
-Víctor Pàmies i Riudor
-Anna Parés i Puntas
-Ester Pedreño Puertas
-Anna Pineda Cirera
-Albert Pla Nualart
-Jordi Plens i Peig
-Anna Maria Porquet Botey
-Maria Pou Nadal
-Lluïsa Puigardeu i Argelich
-Enric Queralt i Catà
-Albert Ràfols Sagués
-Elisabet Ràfols i Sagués
-Miquel Reniu i Tresserras
-Dolors Requena Bernal
-Francesc Ricart i Orús
-Manel Riera-Eures
-Maria Rosa Roca i Riera
-Lídia Rodrigo Llopis
-Jordi Roig i Vinyals
-Elisenda Romeu i Oller
-Sever Salvador i Padrosa
-Maria Teresa Sánchez i Queralt
-Margarida Sanjaume Navarro
-Pere Saumell
-Silvia Senz Bueno
-Blanca Serra i Puig
-Jordi Solé i Camardons
-Joan Soler Bou
-Joan Ramon Soler i Durany
-Rafel Torner i Guinard
-Ramon Torrents Rappard
-Enric de Vilalta i Pach
-Josep Maria Vinyes Vilà
-Josep Maria Virgili i Ortiga
-Toby Willett

Un cop tancada ahir la llista per portar-la a la impremta i fins a les 17.00 d’avui [31 de març de 2016] han arribat també les signatures de:

-Montserrat Bacardí Tomàs, professora
-Montserrat Bayà Camí, filòloga
-Xavier Borràs Calvo, assessor lingüístic
-Montserrat Camps Gaset, professora d’universitat
-Zacaries Camps Parramon, filòleg
-Joan Carnicer Torrent, escriptor
-Jaume Clapés Pedreny, tècnic lingüístic
-Carles Coloma i Collado, escriptor
-Jaume Comellas Colldeforns, filòleg
-Salvador Domènech i Domènech, escriptor i pedagog
-Christelle Enguix Morant, escriptora
-Josep Maria Fonalleras Codony, escriptor
-Salvador Giner, membre de l’Institut
-Josep Gironès Descarrega, escriptor
-José Miguel Gràcia Zapater, escriptor
-Guillem-Jordi Graells i Andreu, escriptor
-Maria Grau i Saló, filòloga
-Jaume Huch, editor i escriptor
-Joan Josep Isern, escriptori
-Laura Jaime i Femenia, escriptora i traductora
-Josep Checa Falgà, poeta
-Noemí Llaveria Pareiras, pedagoga
-Maria Teresa Massons Rabassa, escriptora
-Maria Assumpció Montagut i Freixas, professora
-Rosa Nebot, professora i escriptora
-Mercè Otero Vidal, professora
-Eulalia Sariola, traductora
-Raimon de Penyafort Pavia Segura, tècnic lingüístic
-Pilar Prieto Vives, professor universitari
-Roser Pros Roca, escriptora
-Artur Quintana Font, filòleg i traductor
-Mercè Rius i Santamaria, professora
-Maria Mercè Roca Perich, escriptora
-Miquel-Àngel Sànchez Fèrriz, traductor i terminòleg
-Agustí Segarra, escriptor
-Rosa Maria Serra i Reixach, escriptora
-Isabel-Clara Simó, escriptora
-Josep-Lluís Sotorra i Agramunt, escriptor
-Roser Térmens, tècnica lingüista
-Francina Torras, professora d’universitat
-Montse Vancells Flotats, professora d’universitat
-Josep Anton Vidal i Gonzalvo, traductor

Queda, doncs, proclamat a tot el país el manifest 'Per un veritable procés de normalització lingüística a la Catalunya independent'.

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